A translation is made from a source questionnaire in order to find problems in the source text that only become apparent when translation is attempted. These insights are then used to modify the source questionnaire or plan for adaptation. We recommend carrying out the advance translation using the team approach so as to receive input comparable to that expected during the final translation phase. Comments made in the course of the advance translation typically concern both linguistic- and translation-related issues, as well as intercultural issues (see Dorer (2011)).

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