The extent to which differences between survey statistics from different countries, regions, cultures, domains, time periods, etc., can be attributable to differences in population true values (Johnson & Mohler, 2010); in other words, whether the concepts are comparable or not. It is often referred as ‘equivalence,’ ‘functional equivalence,’ ‘similarity,’ or some other frame of reference (Johnson & Mohler, 2010). Improving comparability implies that error due to translation has to be minimized. In terms of questionnaire translation for 3MC surveys, the aim is to achieve the defined statistical level of comparability across all local versions (expressed in minimized translation error).
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equivalence, functional equivalence, similarity