Changing existing materials (e.g., management plans, contracts, training manuals, questionnaires, etc.) by deliberately altering some content or design component to make the resulting materials more suitable for another sociocultural context or a particular population. In the context of questionnaire translation, the distinction between translation and adaptation is difficult to define, because almost every translation includes adaptation to a certain degree. Therefore, sometimes both terms are used in combination (‘translation and adaptation’) to refer to the process of making a questionnaire fit for use in another language and culture. For a discussion of adaptation and its different forms, see Behr & Shishido (forthcoming). See also Adaptation for more information.

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