Developed by Groves and Heeringa (2006), responsive design is an approach wherein researchers continually monitor selected paradata to inform the error-cost tradeoff in real-time as the basis for altering design features through interventions during the course of data collection of for subsequent waves, with the objective of reducing nonresponse and, ideally, nonresponse bias. Usually the following steps are included: first, researchers pre-identify a set of design features that are of interest (e.g., tradeoff between cost and error); second, researchers identify and monitor these indicators; third, researchers provide intervention or alter the design features based on the pre-identified design decisions rules. Most recently, with the development of technology, real-time responsive design can be achieved in a single survey, such as prompting respondents who show signs of satisficing in Web surveys.

responsive survey design, responsive survey designs
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