Couper first introduced the term ‘paradata’ into the survey research methodology field in 1998 (Groves & Couper, 1998), and the definition of paradata has vastly expanded since then. Paradata now refers to additional data that can be captured during the process of producing a survey statistic (Kreuter, 2013). As discussed in the 2011 International Nonresponse Workshop (Smith, 2011b), two main types of paradata are available. One is process paradata, which is collected during the process of data collection, such as timestamps and keystroke data. The other main type is related to observational information, such as the observed demographic information of respondents and observed neighborhood conditions.

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