Survey error (variance and bias) that arises during the steps between collecting information from the respondent and having the value used in estimation. Processing errors can include all post-collection operations, as well as the printing of questionnaires. Most processing errors occur in data for individual units, although errors can also be introduced in the implementation of systems and estimates. In survey data, processing errors may include errors of transcription, errors of coding, errors of data entry, errors in the assignment of weights, errors in disclosure avoidance, and errors of arithmetic in tabulation.

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