The deliberate technical or substantive modification of some feature of a question, a response scale, or another part of a questionnaire to better fit a new sociocultural context or particular target population (e.g., updating language: ‘radio’ for ‘wireless,’ adapting an adult questionnaire for children: ‘tummy’ for ‘stomach,’ or tailoring for cultural needs: ‘walk several blocks’ versus ‘walk 100 yards’).

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