Images can be used to facilitate the self-administered questionnaire mode for respondents in low-literacy settings. A survey on sensitive caste-related attitudes in rural India followed the protocol below :
- Respondents were provided a basic MP3 player and headphones.
- The audio track on the MP3 presented them with a number of first-person statements made by “respondents like [them].”
- Respondents entered responses on an answer sheet using simple shapes and logos and placed their form in a bolted ballot box to enhance privacy .
- Each question number was designated by an image (e.g., scale, clock, etc.).
- The prerecorded voice uses these images to indicate to the respondent which question to answer.
- Instructions from interviewer and prerecorded voice detail what each ‘thumb’ means (clearly disagree, somewhat disagree, somewhat agree, and clearly agree).
Figure F1: Images are used as question label and response options on the answer sheet.