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Further Reading

Bauer, G., Jungblut, J., Muller, W., Pollak, R., Weiss, F., & Wirth, H. (2006). Issues in the comparative measurement of the supervisory function. Unpublished manuscript. Retrieved May 23, 2008, from

Behr D, Joye. D., Schneider, S. & Wolf, C. (2016). Harmonizing questions and data in comparative surveys. In C. Wolf, D. Joye, T.W. Smith, & Y. Fu (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Survey Methodology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Bilgen, I., & Scholz, E. (2007). Cross-national harmonisation of socio-demographic variables in the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP). Anaheim, CA: American Association of Public Opinion Research.

Burkhauser, R. V., & Lillard, D. R. (2005). The contribution and potential of data harmonization for cross-national comparative research. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis, 7(4), 313-330.

Carlson, R. O. (1958). To talk with kings. Public Opinion Quarterly, 22(3), 224-229.

Desrosieres, A. (2000). Measurement and its uses: Harmonization and quality in social statistics. International Statistical Review/Revue Internationale de Statistique, 68(2), 173-187.

Ehling, M. (2003). Harmonising data in official statistics. In J. H. P. Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik & C. Wolf (Eds.), Advances in cross-national comparison: A European working book for demographic and socio-economic variables (pp. 17-31). New York, NY: Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers.

Esteve, A., & Sobek, M. (2003). Challenges and methods of international census harmonization. Historical Methods, 36(2), 66-79.

Gandek, B., Alacoque, J., V, U., Andrew-Hobbs, M., & Davis, K. (2003). Translating the short-form headache impact test (HIT-6) in 27 countries: Methodological and conceptual issues. Quality of Life Research, 12, 975-979.

Gil Alonso, F. (2006). Toward a European statistics system: Sources of harmonized data for population and households in Europe. Paper presented at the International Data Session of the EAPS European Population Conference.

Hantrais, L., & Mangen, S. (Eds). (1996). Cross-national research methods in the social sciences. New York, NY: Pinter.

Harkness, J. A. (Ed.) (1998). Cross-cultural survey equivalence. Mannheim, Germany: ZUMA.

Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik, J. H. P. (2004). Data harmonization. Roundtable at a conference for the Network of Economic and Social Infrastructures, Luxembourg.

Jan, W. (2009). Establishing Equivalence. In T. Landman & N. Robinson (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Comparative Politics (pp. 84-100). London: Sage Publications.

Kallas, J., & Apostolos L. (2008). A documentation model for comparative research based on harmonization strategies. IASSIST Quarterly (Winter-Summer), 12-24. Retrieved May 02, 2016, from

Kennett, P. A. (2001). Comparative social policy: Theory and research. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Korner, T., & Meyer, I. (2005). Harmonising socio-demographic information in household surveys of official statistics: Experiences from the Federal Statistical Office Germany. In J. H.P. Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik, & J. A. Harkness (Eds.), Methodological aspects in cross-national research. (ZUMA-Nachrichten Spezial 11) (pp. 149-162). Mannheim, Germany: ZUMA.

Niero, M., Martin, M., Finger, T., Lucas, R., Mear, I., Wild, D., et al. (2002). A new approach to multicultural item generation in the development of two obesity-specific measures: The obesity and weight loss quality of life (OWLQOL) questionnaire and the weight related symptom measure (WRSM). Clinical Therapeutics, 24(4), 690-700.

Olenski, J. (2003). SSDIS: Global standard for harmonization of Social statistics. Unpublished manuscript. Retrieved May 23, 2008, from

Przeworski, A. & Teune, H. (1966).  Equivalence in cross-national research. Public Opinion Quarterly, 30(4), 551-568.

U.K. Office for National Statistics (ONS). (2016) Primary set of harmonised concepts and question.  Retrieved May 23, 2016, from,