Term Definition

Changing existing materials (e.g., management plans, contracts, training manuals, questionnaires, etc.) by deliberately altering some content or design component to make the resulting materials more suitable for another socio-cultural context or a particular population. In the context of questionnaire translation, the limits between translation and adaptation are difficult to define because almost every translation includes adaptation to a certain degree. Therefore, sometimes both terms are used in combination (“translation and adaptation”) to name the process of making a questionnaire fit for use in another language and culture. For a discussion of adaptation and, for instance, its different forms, see also (Behr & Shishido, forthcoming). See Adaptation for more information.