Term Definition
Validity

The extent to which a variable measures what it intends to measure.

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Variance
A measure of how much a statistic varies around its mean over all conceptual trials.
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Vignettes

Brief stories/scenarios describing hypothetical situations or persons and their behaviors to which respondents are asked to react in order to allow the researcher to explore contextual influences on respondent’s response formation processes.

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Vocal characteristics

“Analysis of vocal characteristics, also called paralinguistic data (Draisma & Dijkstra, 2004), like behavior codes, examines audio recordings of interviews to identify notable traits of the interviewer’s voice itself, rather than behaviors during the interview. These vocal properties include pitch (higher or lower sounding voices), intonation (rising or falling pitch), speech rate, and loudness” (Olson & Parkhurst, 2013).

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