Term Definition

Altering data recorded by the interviewer or respondent to improve the quality of the data (e.g., checking consistency, correcting mistakes, following up on suspicious values, deleting duplicates, etc.). Sometimes this term also includes coding and imputation, the placement of a number into a field where data were missing.

Synonyms - edited
element (Sample element)

A selected unit of the target population that may be eligible or ineligible.

Eligibility rate
The number of eligible sample elements divided by the total number of elements on the sampling frame.
Embedded experiments
Embedded experiments are included within the framework of an actual study.
Ethics review committee or human subjects review board
A group or committee that is given the responsibility by an institution to review that institution's research projects involving human subjects. The primary purpose of the review is to assure the protection of the safety, rights and welfare of the human subjects.
Event history calendar

A conversational interviewing technique designed to improve recollection of complex sequences of personal events by using respondents’ own past experiences as memory cues. This technique is sometimes referred to as life history calendar.

The process of creating harmonized variables at the outset of data collection, based on using the same questionnaire or agreed definitions in the harmonization process.
The process of creating harmonized variables from data that already exists.
Expectation question

A question asking about respondents’ expectation about the chances or probabilities that certain things will happen in the future.


Eye tracker tracks the time, duration and location of our eyes’ fixations and the saccades between fixations. See Li (n.d.).