Term Definition
Accuracy
The degree of closeness an estimate has to the true value.
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Adaptation

Changing existing materials (e.g., management plans, contracts, training manuals, questionnaires, etc.) by deliberately altering some content or design component to make the resulting materials more suitable for another socio-cultural context or a particular population. In the context of questionnaire translation, the limits between translation and adaptation are difficult to define because almost every translation includes adaptation to a certain degree. Therefore, sometimes both terms are used in combination (“translation and adaptation”) to name the process of making a questionnaire fit for use in another language and culture. For a discussion of adaptation and, for instance, its different forms, see also (Behr & Shishido, forthcoming). See Adaptation for more information.

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Adaptive behavior
Interviewer behavior that is tailored to the actual situation encountered.
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Adjudication

The translation evaluation step at which a translation is signed off and released for whatever follows next such as pretesting or final fielding (the ‘A’ in the TRAPD method, see Translation). When all review and refinement procedures are completed, including any revisions after pretesting and copyediting, a final signing off/adjudication is required. Thus, in any translation effort there will be one or more signing-off steps ("ready to go to external assessment," "ready to go to client," "ready to go to fielding agency," for example).

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Adjudicator
The person who signs-off on a finalized version of a questionnaire (see Adjudication).
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Adjustment Error
Survey error (variance and bias) due to post data collection statistical adjustment.
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Advance translation
A translation is made of a source questionnaire to try to find problems in the source text that only become apparent when translation is attempted. The insights are used to modify the source questionnaire or plan for adaptation. We recommend to carry out the advance translation using the team approach so as to receive input comparable to the one expected during the final translation phase. Comments made in the course of advance translation typically concern both linguistic / translation-related as well as intercultural issues (see Dorer (2011)).
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Anchoring vignettes
A technique used to adjust for noncomparability in self-assessment questions caused by differences in response scale usage across groups. It relies on a set of descriptions (usually brief) of hypothetical people and situations to which self-assessment is calibrated (King, Murray, Salomon, & Tandon, 2004).
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Annotation

Information appended to text in the source questionnaire to help clarify the intended meaning of a source text concept, phrase, or term. (See Appendix A-D for further detail and examples of the use of annotations.) ‘Annotations’ are also referred to as ‘footnotes’.

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Anonymity
Recording or storing information without name or identifier, so the respondent cannot be identified in any way by anyone. No one can link an individual person to the responses of that person, including the investigator or the interviewer. Face-to-face interviews are never anonymous since the interviewer knows the address (and likely, the name) of the respondent.
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Anonymization
Stripping all information from a survey data file that allows the re-identification of respondents (see confidentiality).
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ASCII files
Data files in American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format.
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Ask different questions (ADQ)
An approach to question design where researchers collect data across populations or countries based on using the most salient population-specific questions on a given construct/research topic. The questions and indicators used in each location are assumed (or better, have been shown) to tap a construct that is germane or shared across populations.
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Ask the same questions (ASQ)

An approach to question design whereby researchers collect data across populations/countries by asking a shared set of questions. The most common way to do this is by developing a source questionnaire in one language and then producing whatever other language versions are needed on the basis of translation or translation and adaptation. Hence the description used in the chapter of "ASQ and translate (ASQT)". Decentering is a second way to “ask the same questions” but this procedure is differently organized.

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Ask the same questions and translate (ASQT)

An approach to question design whereby researchers collect data across populations/countries by asking a shared set of questions. The most common way to do this is by developing a source questionnaire in one language and then producing whatever other language versions are needed on the basis of translation or translation and adaptation. Decentering is a second way to “ask the same questions” but this procedure is differently organized.

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Attitudinal question

A question asking about respondents’ opinions, judgments, emotions, and perceptions. These cannot be measured by other means; we are dependent on respondents’ answers. Example: Do you think smoking cigarettes is bad for the smoker’s health?

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Synonyms - attitudinal
Audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (A-CASI)

A mode in which the respondent in which the respondent uses a computer that plays audio recordings of the questions to the respondent, who then enters his/her answers. The computer may or may not display the questions on the screen.

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Synonyms - computer-assisted self-interviewing, audio computer-assisted self-interview (A-CASI), audio computer-assisted self-interview, computer-assisted self interviewing, CASI
Audit trail
An electronic file in which computer-assisted and Web survey software captures paradata about survey questions and computer user actions, including times spent on questions and in sections of a survey (timestamps) and interviewer or respondent actions while proceeding through a survey. The file may contain a record of keystrokes and function keys pressed, as well as mouse actions.
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Auxiliary data
Data from an external source, such as census data, that is incorporated or linked in some way to the data collected by the study. Auxiliary data is sometimes used to supplement collected data, for creating weights, or in imputation techniques.
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