Appendix B

Tasks and qualifications (where specificity is necessary) of personnel in team translation projects

Translators

Tasks

  • Prepare individual translations in preparation for the review session.
  • Take notes on translation and source texts in preparation for the review session (documentation to inform the review). Specify everything that you think should be discussed or where you think action is needed (such as modifying the source text or providing additional information).
  • Participate in review sessions with other members of the review team.
  • Consult on any translation revisions at later stages.
  • May assess source questionnaires for comparative viability.
  • May assess other survey translations.
  • May assist in copyediting.

Qualifications

Reviewers

Tasks

  • Participate in review sessions at times identified as relevant depending on their role.
  • Contribute their individual area of expertise to developing and refining the translated instrument.

Qualifications

  • Very good translation skills and language skills in both source and target language.
  • Familiarity with questionnaire design principles as well as the study design and topic.
  • One reviewing person with linguistic expertise, experience in translating, and survey knowledge is sufficient.
  • If one person cannot be found with these skills, two could cover the different aspects.

Adjudicator

Tasks

  • Appraise and officially sign off on translations, usually after the review meeting(s), but also after subsequent steps, such as verification, survey quality predictor software (SQP) or the pretesting – depending on the series of steps carried out in each project.
  • Appraise the review outputs, if possible in consultation with a senior advisor (the senior reviewer or other consultant) and approve a final version for pretesting  and fielding. If the adjudicator is also the senior reviewer (reviewer-cum-adjudicator), review and  adjudication  may follow directly upon one another.
  • If the senior person on a project who is officially required to sign off on a translation is not appropriate to appraise translation quality and decisions, this nominal adjudicator may delegate adjudication to another senior person better suited for this task. Alternatively, in the same situation, the adjudicator may use consultants for documentation from the review session(s), to work through the translation and document decision points and notes before signing off.

Qualifications

  • Proficiency in both target and source languages.
  • Familiarity with questionnaire design principles as well as the study design and topic.

Copyeditor(s)

Tasks

  • Check for correctness in the target language, including spelling, omissions, wrong formatting, consistency
  • Check against the  source document  for such errors, such as inadvertent omissions or additions or question and answer option reversals, mistakes resulting from copy-and-paste activities, misread source questions, and filter numbering correctness.
  • Check against the documentation template for any changes that might have been missed.

Co-ordinator

Tasks

  • Large translation efforts, centrally organized studies, or efforts conducted within a large organization may have a coordinator to manage the translation effort in an organizational management sense (schedule coordination, personnel identification, budgeting, and so forth). In the case of multinational surveys, this person would typically work at the project and not country-level.
  • In other instances, the senior reviewer may organize the translation effort (this would then be at the country-level).

Substantive and other experts

Tasks

  • Substantive experts may be needed to provide advice on a variety of matters, such as the suitability of  indicators
  • Question design experts might be consulted about changes in format necessitated by translation.
  • Interviewers might be consulted for fielding matters relevant to translation.
  • Visual design experts might, for example, be consulted about cross-cultural aspects of visual presentation.

Programmers

Tasks

  • If the questionnaire is computer-assisted, consultation with programmers, or those familiar with programming requirements, is needed to ensure that the translation document or file is marked appropriately. Numerous programming details may need to differ from one language to another to accommodate different language structure requirements (see Questionnaire Design).

Back-up personnel

Tasks

  • Projects sometimes run beyond agreed times of availability of personnel. Personnel may also become unavailable for a variety of reasons. It is a good idea to have back-up personnel in place.

External assessors

Tasks

  • If some parts of the translation process or translation outputs are to be subjected to external assessment, suitable assessment personnel will be required (see Translation: Assessment).