Appendix F

Images can be used to facilitate the self-administered questionnaire mode for respondents in low-literacy settings. A survey on sensitive caste-related attitudes in rural India followed the protocol below (Chauchard, 2013):

  1. Respondents were provided a basic MP3 player and headphones.
  2. The audio track on the MP3 presented them with a number of first-person statements made by “respondents like [them].”
  3. Respondents entered responses on an answer sheet using simple shapes and logos and placed their form in a bolted ballot box to enhance privacy (Lowndes et al., 2012).
  4. Each question number was designated by an image (e.g., scale, clock, etc.).
  5. The prerecorded voice uses these images to indicate to the respondent which question to answer.
  6. Instructions from interviewer and prerecorded voice detail what each “thumb” means:  Clearly disagree, somewhat disagree, somewhat agree, clearly agree.

         Figure F1: Images are used as question label and response options on the answer sheet

instrument technical design appendix f image 01