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Translation is the process of expressing the sense of words or phrases from one language into another. Translation procedures play a central and important role in multinational, multicultural, or multiregional surveys, which we refer to as “3MC” surveys. Although good translation products do not assure the success of a survey, badly translated questionnaires can ensure that an otherwise sound project fails because the poor quality of translation prevents researchers from collecting comparable data.

There are seven sets of guidelines that provide details for the different components of the translation process. We recommend reviewing all of these guidelines if translation will be needed for the survey project.

Translation: Overview 

Translation: Management and Budgeting 

Translation: Team

Translation: Scheduling 

Translation: Shared Language Harmonization 

Translation: Assessment

Translation: Tools